The Greek Pantheon

The Greek Pantheon

The Greek Pantheon

The following chart lists the major Greek and Roman gods and goddesses, their attributes, and concerns. You should know this list! The first twelve entries correspond to the “Twelve Olympian Gods” of ancient Greece and Rome. Dionysus often replaces Hestia in the list, especially in Athens because of his connection to tragedy.


Greek Name

Roman Name




Zeus Jupiter / Jove Cronus – Rhea Sky god, weather, sovereignty Beard, thunderbolt, eagle, scepter, throne
Hera Juno Cronus – Rhea Marriage, family Matron, peacock
Demeter Ceres Cronus – Rhea Harvest Matron; ears of corn; often w/ Persephone
Artemis Diana Zeus – Leto Wild animals; maidenhood Bow, short skirt; often w/ animals
Aphrodite Venus Zeus – Dione / Uranus’ genitals Love, human fertility Doves; often w/ Cupid. Only nude goddess
Hermes Mercury Zeus – Maia Commerce, travel, thieves Hat, caduceus (staff w/ snakes), winged sandals
Hephaestus Vulcan Hera (alone) Crafts, metallurgy Lame, bald; hammer
Poseidon Neptune Cronus – Rhea Water, sea; earthquakes Beard, trident; chariot over the sea
Apollo Apollo Zeus – Leto Healing, music / poetry, prophecy Young, beardless, lyre, bow, coiffure
Ares Mars Zeus – Hera War, violence Beardless, shield, sword
Athena Minerva Zeus – Metis Civilized life / culture; maidenhood Helmet, spear, aegis, owl
Hestia Vesta Cronus – Rhea Household Matron (rarely pictured)
Dionysus Liber Zeus – Semele Ecstasy; the vine Ivy in the hair; panther skin; often w/ Maenads and Baachantes
Pan Faunus Hermes -nymph Wild animals; shepherds Goat legs, pointed ears, horns, pipes
Heracles Hercules Zeus – Alcmene Civilizing force Club, lion skin over head
Hades Dis Pater Cronus – Rhea The dead Beard (rarely pictured)
Persephone Proserpina Zeus – Demeter The dead; agriculture Young women; often w/ Demeter
Asclepius Aesculapius Apollo – Coronis Medicine Beard, staff w/ snake, saucer


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